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The Chaos of Direct Translation


The Chaos of Direct Translation  

"The heart is broken"  

Would you translate this expression into Burmese as "the heart is broken? If you do Burmese people will laugh at you. This is literal translation, in other word, direct translation without considering the cultural norm or the common usage of Burmese language.  In consistence with Burmese cultural norm and usage it has to be translated as;

 "The liver is broken."  

Yes, it's the liver, not the heart that is broken when your loved one leaves you for the one who is younger, prettier and smarter than you. So you're left with the broken liver, but it is  broken heart for an English person.  

Likewise, when you see "the liver is broken" in Burmese you need to convert it into English as "the heart is broken." If you direct translate it as "the liver is broken" into English, the English people will definitely laugh at you as well.   As a translator I have seen many direct translations in my life when I did checking/proofreading the translations done by other translators. This probably prompts me to write this interesting article.  

Let's see another example.  

"She is over the moon."   Do you know what would it be if we direct translate this expression into Burmese? I am quite sure that it would be a total chaos. The equivalent translation is "she is happy."  

Translation is not verbatim, word for word translation. Translation is the process of converting the same message into the other language. The message should be complete and it should not be added with new idea and also should not be subtracted. Most translators called it NANS, Nothing Added, Nothing Subtracted. Quote: [Translator shall not alter, make addition to or omit anything from their assigned work (AUSIT, Australian Institute of Interpreters and Translators)].    

The message should be the complete rendition of the original message. Quote: [Translate original message faithfully to satisfy the needs of the end user (ATA, American Translators Association)].  

The translated message must satisfy the original message. Quote: [Guarantee that translation is a faithful rendering of the original (UN, United Nations)].    

Let's see another example.  

"I love you to the moon and back."  

Again, what would it be if we direct translate this expression into Burmese? Wow, I am quite sure that it would be a beautiful disaster. The equivalent translation is "I love you more than anything."    

Here are a few direct translations which are odd in appearance and absurd in the view point of cultural norms.   Please fill in the table with more examples of your experiences. I'll add more in the table later. Thank you. 

The Use of English Question Mark "?" in Burmese Translation

The Use of English Question Mark "?" in Burmese Translation


Nowadays, I have proofread a few Burmese translations and come across the phenomenon of the use of English question mark in Burmese translation. Some translators use the English question mark but some don't. It has come to my attention that which practice whether the use of English question mark or not using it is a standard authentic translation.
 
When we look at the Myanmar Script, it includes 33 consonants, 12 vowels and a number of consonant combination symbols. Unfortunately, there is no English question mark in our Myanmar Script, but we have the equivalent, that is to say, a symbol representing the two tiny vertical lines called Poke-ma, which also represents an English full stop.  
 
I would like to look at the Ethics in Translation in the hope that it would resolve this issue. Ethics in Translation are as follows:
 
Ø  Translator shall not alter, make addition to or omit anything from their assigned work.  (AUSIT)
Ø  Translate original message faithfully to satisfy the needs of the end user. (ATA)
Ø  Render faithful translation of source text (meaning & register) [IOL]
Ø  Guarantee that translation is a faithful rendering of the original. (UN)
Ø  Refuse to give text an interpretation of which he/she does not approve.
Ø  Translation to be faithful and render exactly the idea and form of the original.
Ø  Faithful translation should not be confused with a literal translation, cultural adaptation may be needed.
 
Among the set of rules for translation, I choose the "translate original message faithfully to satisfy the needs of the end user, (ATA), to apply in this scenario. As long as we have the equivalent of the English question mark in Burmese Script, the equivalent would satisfy the translation of the English question mark and it would satisfy the needs of the end user as well. Some translators put both the equivalent and the English question mark at the same time so it makes the English question mark redundant in my view because it is not necessary, the equivalent is already there. However, the use of English question mark in Burmese writing can be accepted in casual writings such as Facebook, Twitters and etc, but it should be avoided in formal translation. Translation is regarded as one of the professional industries and it should be done professionally.
 
What is your thought?

One Prisoner of Conscience is one too many!

One prisoner of conscience is one too many!
 
Aung San Suu Kyi addressed on her acceptance of Nobel Peace Prize in Norway on 16 June 2012. At the opening of the ceremony, the host on behalf of the Nobel Peace Prize committee said, "Dear Aung San Suu Kyi, please come forward to give us a lecture. We don't have a gold medal because that was received by your sons in 1991 but I am sure that your verses to us today will be written in gold."
 
Aung San Suu Kyi was welcomed with standing ovation for about one minute before she addressed the audiences. The audiences include her majesty the Queen of Norway, the royal highness the Princes and honorary lords and distinguished guests. The verse most heartbreaking and well received with applause is "one prisoner of conscience is one too many." I presume that this verse has already been inscribed in gold as promised by the host of the ceremony at this time. The standing ovation lasted for about two minutes at the end of her speech. What a wonderful moment in time. Those who have not listened to the speech are strongly recommended to listen. The link is provided below.
 
 
My memory swayed back to the following blog article I wrote on 10 November 2005 in a Google group called Social Culture Burma.
 
The value of liberty starts fading for SPDC
'Life, Liberty and pursuit of happiness'...what a gracious privilege that people could enjoy in their lifetime. This is not merely a right for being American, for being British, for being Australian or for being Westerners. This is an absolute right for being human that we called it human right. Everybody has the same and equal to each other for the enjoyment of the right of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. American Constitution guarantees this right and expressly included in its preamble. 
One cannot say that this right is the value and the way of westerners' style principle of democracy that is not suitable and it has no place for the people in Burma. The privilege of this right for the Burmese people is nothing less or nothing more to that of Westerners. Unfortunately, Burmese people are far far away from the enjoyment of this right because of the brutal regime of military junta. 
Recent declaration of SPDC for their intention to move administrative ministries to Pyinmana has caught many media attention. Some say that the move has its intention to deter in case of American invasion. Whatever it is, one thing for sure is that SPDC is concerned for its safety 
and its longevity, for other words, liberty for SPDC over and above to its citizen and taken for granted at the expense of oppression of its citizen has started to fade away. 
Once upon a time, there was a rabbit that was so paranoid and had taken precaution that what would he do if in case the sky were falling upon him. With the perception in mind the rabbit tried to sleep with its two feet up in taking prevention he thought he could lift the sky if it 
were falling when he was asleep. Unfortunately, when the rabbit was about to a sound sleep, a palm fruit near to the rabbit fell to the ground. Suddenly in fear of death, the rabbit got up and started to run at the same time shouting as 'run, run for your life, the sky is falling' so that the other idiot nearby animals ran right behind the stupid rabbit and made all the mess around. 
This is a fable written by Burmese scholar Dr. Htin Aung of Burma and we were taught in school when we were in our junior years. Thanks to the teachers who taught this fable to us. This fable is the exact reflection to the current move taken by the SPDC who is the replica of 
the stupid rabbit in the fable. 
By taking the step to move to Pyinmana by SPDC, it reflects that the value of liberty for SPDC starts fading. It is time for SPDC to get fully insight into the definition of the freedom from fear and to realize that how the Burmese people have destined to love and cherish the value of liberty, the right to life, the right to freedom of speech, the right to lawful association, and the right to choose its own democratic government. 
TonyL, Australia. 

Burmese Translation for the word "client"

Burmese translation for the word "client"
 
Sometimes a simple word can't get you move and you probably get stuck in the middle of your translation. You thought you know the appropriate translation for the word but in fact when you translate it, you find yourself that you are not very happy with it completely. Because you thought that the translated word, which may be common in Burma, you put in is not very closely related with the context of the source document. In this situation, how do you feel? The word I am referring to is "Client." We do not have many relevant translations for this word. Please consider the following:
 
·         Client for a Law Firm
·         Client for a retail outlet
·         Client for Hospital or Clinic
·         Client for Libraries
·         Client for resettlement services providers.
·         Client for natural therapies and etc,
 
Would you use the same translated word for all of the above services? Burmese word for the client is common for the client of law firm. Another Burmese word for this is for the client of retail outlet. In the case that you translate a letter or a brochure for the other service providers, how would you translate "client" ? For example: A physiotherapist writes a letter to his client for an appointment, and the letter starts with "Dear client." How would you translate "Dear client"?

Story of Thuwanna Tharma

Epic stories of Gautama Buddha's previous lives
(Abridged)
 
Story of Thuwanna Tharma
Adapted and translated from Burmese written by Min Yu Wai.
 
Once upon a time, there was a fishing village near the city of Bhayarnarthi. In that village there lived a wedded couple, Dukula and Parigha. Their parents were fishermen. However, they did not live on fishing.
 
Although they lived together they did not have a sexual relationship as husband and wife. They practiced celibacy, Bhyamarsarigya. One day, they asked permission from their parents to be hermits and then they left the village.
 
When Dukula and Parigha reached Himawonda forest, they made themselves hermits in the hermitage near the river, Migathammadhar. They practiced meditation, metta. Due to the divine power of their meditation, animals in the vicinity were free from conflict among one another and instead united.
 
While they were living in the forest, Parigha fetched water for consumption, and swept, then she accompanied Dukula to search for fruits. After they had come back to the hermitage, they ate the fruits and practiced religious meditation.
 
In such a way of life a son was born even though they lived celibacy. The son was not a result of the relationship of the husband and wife. From advice given by Thar Kyar Minn, Parigha was conceived by the touch of Dukula on her bellybutton. Due to his shining golden skin, the son was called Thuwanna Tharma. He was also known as Thuwanna Shyan.
 
When Parigha was out in search for fruits, Female Keinneryi, mythical fairies, babysat Thuwanna Tharma. Both parents looked after Thuwanna Tharma, feeding him fruits, until he reached sixteen years of age.
 
One day, Dukula and Parigha were on their way back to the hermitage. Just before they got the hermitage, it started raining cats and dogs. Therefore, they went under a tree and stood on an anthill to avoid the rain. At that instance, drops of water mixed with sweat from their body fell into the hole of the anthill. In the hole there was a cobra that spat out poison so Dukula and Parigha's eyes were affected and they went blind.
 
Thuwanna Tharma was worried when his parents did not get back home as they were supposed to. He started looking for them on the way they normally went. He found them having trouble with their vision under the tree.
When Dukula and Parigha heard their son's voice, they shouted "Loving son, do not come here, it is dangerous." Thuwanna Tharma fetched a long vine branch and threw it to the parents and pulled them out away from the anthill. Then, he brought them back to the hermitage.
 
Thuwanna Tharma lamented when he found out that his parents had gone blind. But he soothed himself because he had a chance to look after his parents. Since then, Thuwanna Tharma had been looking after his parents by giving them bodily massages and feeding them fruits.
 
Thuwanna Tharma got up from bed very early every day. He paid homage to his parents and went to the river, Migathammadhar. He fetched water for consumption. He gave his parents water for facial wash and brush for their teeth. He let them wash face. He fed them fruits. He ate after his parents finished eating.
 
Then, he paid homage to his parents and went out in search of fruits with his company of deer. Keinneryis, mythical fairies, helped Thuwanna Tharma find fruits as well.
 
In the evening, Thuwanna Tharma came back to the hermitage from picking fruits. In the hermitage he boiled water. He bathed his parents with warm water. Then, he made a fire to let them warm. He fed them with the fruits. He ate after they finished eating. These were the daily routines.
 
At that time, Pithiyetkha Mingyi, a King of Bhayarnarthi, entered the Himawonda forest, as he was very fond of deer meat. While he was hunting deer, he approached the river, Migathammadhar.
 
The King saw the footprints of deer on the bank of the river where Thuwanna Tharma normally fetched water. Then, the King hid himself so he would be able to shoot the deer.
 
Not long after, Thuwanna Tharma came to the bank to fetch water. He was surrounded by the deer. When the King saw Thuwanna Tharma, due to unusual circumstances, the King did not realize that Thuwanna Tharma was a human being. Therefore, the King decided to catch him but was afraid that Thuwanna Tharma would run away as he approached. So, he shot him with a poisonous arrow with the intent that Thuwanna Tharma would not be able to run away.
 
The arrow entered from the left rib and protruded through the right rib of Thuwanna Tharma. The deer ran away because they were afraid of the sound of the arrow. Even though the arrow struck him, Thuwanna Tharma did not let go of the water pot. With extreme caution, he slowly put down the water pot. Then, he lay down on the sand of the bank facing the direction of his parents.
 
Thuwanna Tharma vomited blood because of the poisonous arrow. However, he remained conscious and said, "I do not have any enemy here, neither do my parents. Who has shot me with the arrow?" Then he continued, "My flesh is not edible. My skin is not usable. Even so, why have I been shot like an animal?"
King Pithiyetkha Mingyi was amazed when he heard him. "Even though I shot him with an arrow, this person does not swear, but says lovely words." He approached.
 
He introduced himself as Pithiyetkha Mingyi and asked Thuwanna Tharma.
 
"Who are you? Whose son are you? What is your background?"
 
"I am Thuwanna Tharma. My parents are Dukula and Parigha. My background is fisherman. Now, I am going to die because of the arrow with which you shot me. Why did you shoot me with the arrow?"
 
The King lied.
 
"The deer I was going to shoot ran away because they were afraid when they saw you. Therefore, I was angry and shot you."
 
"In this forest, no such animal is ever afraid of me or run away when they see me. Deer are friendlier with me and they are never afraid of me. Why do you say that deer were afraid of me and ran away when they saw me?"
 
The King admitted that he had lied. After his admission, he enquired Thuwanna Tharma. Thuwanna Tharma also told him that he was looking after his blind parents. Thuwanna Tharma did not care for his injury but instead worried for his parents.
 
"Your majesty, my parents have fruit rations left for only six days. No water for them to drink. Without water they will die," he lamented.
 
The King was regretful, "Wow, this is a good man. He is looking after both his parents. Even though he is suffering from a poisonous arrow, he is worried about his parents. I have committed a sinful act against a man who has so many blessings."
 
Thus the King decided not to go back to the palace but to look after the parents of Thuwanna Tharma on his behalf.
 
He said, "You, Thuwanna Tharma, tell me the location of your parents. I will look after them the way you do."
 
Thuwanna Tharma was very happy with that. He immediately disclosed the location of his parents to the King. For a while he lost consciousness because of the poison.
 
The King examined Thuwanna Tharma and lamented, "Thuwanna Tharma has died." Then the King went to the hermitage where Dukula and Parigha resided. He told all about the incident to Dukula and Parigha. He also disclosed the reason why he was here.
"Oh, you hermits, from now on I will serve you as my parents."
 
"Your majesty, you do not need to serve us. Please lead us to where Thuwanna Tharma is. We would like to cry while banging our chest and touching our son's face. We would like to die after our son."
 
The King tried to console them but was unsuccessful. At last, the King had no option but to guide them by pulling their hands to Thuwanna Tharma. When they reached their son, Dukula lifted and hugged the head of Thuwanna Tharma. Parigha put the leg of Thuwanna Tharma on her lap. They cried.
 
While Parigha was touching her son's chest and crying, she realized that her son had not died yet. "Oh, my son has not died yet.  He has just passed out because of the poison." In order to get the effect of the poison overcome, she did incantations, magical spells:
 
1.      "My son Thuwanna Tharma always practices good deeds. For this solemn oath let the effect of the poison be overcome."
2.      "My son Thuwanna Tharma always behaves with good attitude. For this solemn oath let the effect of the poison be overcome."
3.      "My son Thuwanna Tharma always speaks the truth. For this solemn oath let the effect of the poison be overcome."
4.      "My son Thuwanna Tharma looks after his parents. For this solemn oath let the effect of the poison be overcome."
5.      "My son Thuwanna Tharma pays respect to the elders. For this solemn oath let the effect of the poison be overcome."
6.      "I love my son Thuwanna Tharma much more than my own life. For this solemn oath let the effect of the poison be overcome."
7.      "For all the good deeds Dukula and I have done let the effect of the poison be overcome."
 
 
After Parigha had recited the solemn oaths, Thuwanna Tharma started to move from stillness. He rolled over. Dukula was so excited with confidence. Parigha recited the seven incantations again. Then, Thuwanna Tharma rolled over to the other side.
 
At that instance, Bahuthudari Natami, who had been a mother to Thuwanna Tharma in a previous life, was near around. Natami had sympathy on Thuwanna Tharma and also made incantation.
 
"I have resided at Ganthamardana Mountain for many years. During my stay, there is no one else that I love much more than I love Thuwanna Tharma. For this solemn oath let the effect of the poison be overcome."
 
"Every tree in this Ganthamardana smells pleasant. There is no tree that doesn't smell unpleasant. For this solemn oath let the effect of the poison be overcome."
After the incantation, the effect of the poison overcame and Thuwanna Tharma moved to a sitting position. The wound was healed immediately. At the same time, due to the power of incantation, Dukula and Parigha regained vision. When they saw Thuwanna Tharma alive;
 
"We regain our vision. Thuwanna Tharma is alive as well." They overwhelmed.
 
King Pithiyetkha Mingyi could not believe what he experienced. The King asked, "Thuwanna Tharma, why did you come back to live?"
 
Thuwanna Tharma said, "Your majesty, the one who look after his parent is treated by the Nat."
 
The King put his two hands together to kowtow and apologized, "You, Thuwanna Tharma, I pay homage to you."
 
Thuwanna Tharma disciplined the King to look after the parents in accordance with the obligations, to govern the nation in accordance with the ten royal codes and to observe five precepts.
 
The King accepted the directives from Thuwanna Tharma and left for the palace. Thuwanna Tharma kept looking after his parents for the rest of his life. When he died, he reached Byamar Pyi.
 
King Pithiyetkha Mingyi did good deeds for the rest of his life and when he died, he reached Nat Pyi.
 
Epilogue:Thuwanna Tharma was claimed the avatar of Gautama Buddha in one of his previous 547 lives.
 
 Note: Sanskrit names are localized for easy understanding.
 
I hereby acknowledge the writer Min Yu Wai for his great work. Thank you.

Do we need theory for translation and interpreting?

Dear Folks,
 
It has been a while I haven't been to my Blog Post due to my laziness  as well as my busyness – an increased workload of translation after the establishment of this website and Proz.com membership—you can also view my profile at http://www.proz.com/profile/1319989  and see how it has progressed since membership in last January 2011.
Now I have a chance to share this with you, Folks. The topic I would like to share is "Do we need theory for translation and interpreting?" I have attended translation theory workshop which was held on the 22 October 2011 organized by AUSIT. So I would like to share this with my fellows Burmese translators and interpreters.










































Translation must fulfill a prerequisite: It must be interpretable and meaningful for the recipients in the relevant situation.
 
Translation is first and foremost a function of its aim or purpose (= skopos in Greek) within a given, culturally specific situation and on the basis of a specific commission. 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Certificate that I obtained from the workshop is as follows:





ProZ.com Powwows

ProZ.com Powwows
 
Powwows are informal get-togethers of groups of ProZ.com users living in close proximity. The events are organized by local translators, for local translators. The last Powwow I have attended was held on  4 June 2011, last Saturday, in Adelaide. Adelaide Powwow is organized by Nicole Adams, who is ProZ.com Certified Pro. Thanks, Nicole. Adelaide Powwow is held in combination with AUSIT Connect It, get together net working meeting for AUSIT members. In this combo meeting translators discuss industrial norms and trends and share individual experiences which relate to interpreting & translation. Connect It meeting is organized by Maurite Fober. Thanks, Maurite.

Congratulations!!!

Congratulations!!!!!
 
I have a few outsourcers and translation agencies who did COngratulate me on my being ProZ.com Certified PRO with well wishes which I am very delighted to engrave their kind Congrats here to reflect my sincere communication with them and as well as to evidence my expertise in adequate translation, reliability in business and good on-line citizenship.
 
Here we go!
 
Tony
 
Congratulations from all at ITC, well deserved.
 
Cheers
Vicki
Interpreting and Translating Centre
 
 
Congrats!  That’s awesome and well-deserved!  Now that you’re a PRO, please don’t forget about us little people!
 
Take care,
 
Michael
 
 
Hi Tony,
 
Congratulations on the below. Well done mate.
 
Cheers,
 
Roberto
ABC International Pty Ltd
 
 
 
 
COngratulations Tony !
 
Jeff
 
 
 
 
Congratulations Tony!
 
You deserve it.
 
Thank you and have a great day.
 
We're on FACEBOOK!  Join us and become a fan of PALS INTERNATIONAL.
 
Celebrating 26 years of Building Global Success through Translation Services, Cross Cultural Programs & Language Training.
 
Regards,
Gina Saylor
Translation Services Coordinator
 
 
Thank you very much to those who congratulate. I appreciate your appreciations. To view my online certificate, please click the link below:
 
 
Cheers!
 
Tony Latt
 
By the way I would like to recommend to those who have not yet listened to "President Obama addresses to British Parliament" to listen. It is worth listening. In his speech references have been made to historic speeches of great leaders, Magna Carta, Habeas Corpus, Bills of Rights, Trial by Jury, Universal human rights and so on. The most breathtaking part of the speech is " Is it possible for the people to be united by the idea, instead of divided by the differences. Is it possible for a heart to change and hatred to pass. Is it possible for the sons and daughters of former colonies to sit here as members of this great parliament, a grandson of a man from Kenya who served as cook in British army, stands before you as a President of United States." Please listen, it is fully recommended. To listen please click the link below:

ProZ.com Certified PRO

ProZ.com Certified PRO

Proz.com information can be viewed by clicking the following link:

 
Alternatively I have inserted the information here as it is written for your convenience. This information is the same as the one you are about to see when you click the above link.
 
What is the ProZ.com Certified PRO Network?
The ProZ.com Certified PRO Network is an initiative of the ProZ.com community, the purpose of which is to identify qualified translators in various language pairs, and provide them with the option of networking and collaborating in an environment consisting entirely of screened professionals. Those accepted into the network earn the "ProZ.com Certified PRO" title and seal, which may optionally be displayed in profile pages and elsewhere on or off the ProZ.com website.

What are the benefits of participating in the network?
Participating in the ProZ.com Certified PRO Network will provide a powerful new means for top professionals to distinguish themselves as such, through not only demonstration of their unique capabilities (in keeping with published industry standards), but also through peer/client/supplier review and, perhaps soon, verified track records. In time, this network will provide an easier way for top professionals and top companies to meet and do work, particularly when that work has to be done right and is paid accordingly. 

What are the requirements for getting certified?
Freelance translators
1.   Translation ability *
a. Competence in source
b. Competence in target
c. Research competence
d. Cultural competence
e. Technical competence

2.   Business reliability

3.   Good citizenship

1. Translation ability
A screening process has been developed in accordance with the guidelines set forth in the EN 15038 standard for quality in translation. For translators, various means are used to confirm the "competences" called for in EN 15038, including verification of credentials that applicants have earned from associations around the world, such as the American Translator Association (USA), the Chartered Institute of Linguists (UK). (Sample translation, peer/client review and other data may be considered in the review process, especially in language pairs and areas in which tested credentials may not be as readily accessible.)
2. Business reliability
The second requirement for admittance into the program is business reliability. This is assessed through a combination of peer review, client review and consideration of relevant data from the ProZ.com database. In the case of companies, track record both as a supplier and as a buyer may be considered. Once admitted to the program, participants must maintain good track records in order to remain in the program.
3. Good citizenship
The third requirement for admittance into the program is "good citizenship". Participants must endorse and act in a manner consistent with the ProZ.com
, they must accept the terms and conditions of program participation, and they must contribute to the upkeep of the program by remaining in good standing as members, in terms of membership fees, profile data, and adherence with site and program rules and regulations.
 
An excerpt from the EN 15038 standard for quality in the translation industry
3.2.2 Professional competences of translators
Translators shall have at least the following competences.
a.Translating competence
b.Linguistic and textual competence in the source language and the target language
c.Research competence, information acquisition and processing
d.Cultural competence
e.Technical competence
The above competences should be acquired through one or more of the following:

  • formal higher education in translation (recognised degree);
  • equivalent qualification in any other subject plus a minimum of two years of documented experience in translating;
  • at least five years of documented professional experience in translating.


I would like to share my achievement with my peers and colleagues. I have been admitted to ProZ.com Certified PRO as a Translator for the language pair, English to Burmese on the 25th May 2011.


Story of Nay Mi

Epic stories of Gautama Buddha's previous lives
(Abridged)
 
Story of Nemi <Nay Mi>
Adapted and translated from Burmese written by Min Yu Wai.
 
 
Long time ago there was a king named Marga Daewa in Maithilar in the kingdom of Widae Harith.  The king enjoyed his life by observing religious practices. Therefore, he had decided that when he got old and grey he would turn himself into a monk and wander at non worldly life. He told his barber, who took care of his hair and beard that if any hairs turned grey let him know.
 
One day the barber saw one single grey hair on the king's head. The barber reported, "Your majesty, I have seen one single grey hair on your head."
 
Then the king released the kingship and gave the throne to his son. The king summoned his son, "When the hair turns grey, give up secular life as I do." Then the king gave up the throne. He went into monkhood and wandered at non worldly life.
 
Therefore, the future generations inherited the legacy of ruling the throne and wandering at non worldly life when their hair turned grey.
 
Since king Marga Daewa, there was an eight hundred and thirty one thousand nine hundred and ninety ninth king who ruled Maithilar. The king had one son, Nay Mi Kumaya. Since childhood, prince Nay Mi gave alms offerings and observed religious commandments.
 
According to the ancient traditions the king relinquished the throne and wandered at non worldly life when the hair turned grey. Then, the prince Nay Mi inherited the kingship. King Nay Mi ruled the kingdom in compliance with the rules of kings' conducts. In addition, five pavilions for alms offerings were erected, each on four gates of the city and one in the middle. Every day one hundred thousand monetary notes were donated in each pavilion, a total of five hundred thousand notes. Five pillars of commandments were observed. Fastings were done every full moon day and last waning day. The people were encouraged to do good deeds.
 
Those who followed the king’s teachings were destined to Nat Pyi, angels’ kingdom, when they died. Therefore, angels' population had increased in Nat Pyi, angels’ kingdom. The hell became less populated. One day, king Nay Mi was trying to think but unable to get a clue on the puzzle of "which one is more beneficial, alms offerings or observing commandments?"
 
Sakka <Tha Kyar Minn>, chief of all Nats angels, descended to earth when he became aware of the king's problem. He became visible to king Nay Mi and said, "Your majesty, observing commandments is more beneficial than those of the alms offerings." Then, Tha Kyar Minn ascended back to Thar Wadeintar Nat Pyi, the angels' kingdom. 
 

When the angels of the Thar Wadeintar Nat Pyi became aware of the episode they wished to meet with king Nay Mi. So they begged Tha Kyar Minn to invite king Nay Mi to the angels' kingdom. Sakka <Thar Kyar Minn> fulfilled the angels' wishes. He commanded Martali Nat angel, "Get king Nay Mi here."
 
Martali Nat came to fetch king Nay Mi with a one-thousand Theiktaw horses drawn carriage, Waizayandra. The people of Maithilar gazed with surprise on their faces. Martali invited king Nay Mi.  The king accepted the invitation with much pleasure because he had never been to Nat Pyi before. He told the people and the members of the palace, "I'll be back soon, do not forget to do good deeds." Then he alighted on the Waizayandra carriage. Martali asked the king, "Your majesty, we have two routes, one passes through the hell and the other one, heaven. Which route would you like to choose?"
 
The king had not seen heaven or hell, so he wanted to see both, and he replied, "I would like to pass both routes."
 
At that, Martali steered his carriage in the direction of the hell first. Different kinds of torments were shown in hell. Some of those in hell were trying to swim in a river which was covered with flaming iron spikes and iron vines leading to no escape. Some were being eaten by hell dogs the size of elephants. Some were running on a flaming iron ground with their bodies on fire. Some were being dumped on a big bronze pot with boiling copper. Some were forced to eat flaming ashes. Some were targeted by flaming arrows. Some were having chopped their body parts off. Some were forced to eat feces in a horrible ditch full of feces. Some were forced to drink rotten blood and rotten pus. Some were skewered with flaming iron hooks in their tongues. Some were being tortured, their lower torsos buried under iron ground and their upper torsos rolled over by a flaming road roller. Some were put upside down in a flaming ditch. Others were tortured with yet more techniques.
 
Those who were suffering in hell had done very bad deeds in their previous lives. Depending on their bad deeds they were tortured with different kinds of torments.
 
After these different kinds of torments were shown, Martali took king Nay Mi to Nat Pyi, where angels were enjoying their luxurious heavenly wellbeing.
 
Angels in Nat Pyi were the ones who did very good deeds in their previous lives. Depending on their good deeds they enjoyed different kinds of luxurious wellbeing.
 
At first king Nay Mi saw Bareni Natami, a femaleangel, who was enjoying the luxurious monument in Nat Pyi. She was living in a monument decorated with rubies, and one thousand angels, Natami, were at her disposal. Then, king Nay Mi saw the monument where Tawnadein Nat, a male angel, was enjoying. Tawnadein Nat was enjoying seven monuments with many femaleangels, Natami. Then king Nemi saw many femaleangels, Natami, in the monuments. These angels were having heavenly beverages and heavenly foods, Nat Tokethar. They were also enjoying heavenly instrumental music. Then there was a monument made of rubies, and many male angels, Nats, were listening to the heavenly instrumental music in it. Next, there was a monument made of crystal. A male angel Nat resided in it with many female angels, Natami. Then there was a monument made of gem. A male angel Nat was enjoying heavenly instrumental music in it. Next, there was a monument made of gold. A male angel Nat was enjoying luxurious heavenly wellbeing.
 
It took times for Martali and king Nay Mi to look at Nat monuments one after another. In the meantime, Nats angels from Thar Wadeintar Nat Pyi were waiting for them to arrive. Sakka <Tha Kyar Minn>  the chief angel sent a messenger, Zawana Nat, to them. Thus King Nay Mi did not waste time anymore, looked around briefly at the rest of the monuments located at four corners, and went straight up to the Thar Wadeintar Nat Pyi.
 
When they arrived to Thar Wadeintar Nat Pyi, king Nay Mi was being welcomed by the Nats angels from both sides of the carriage. Sakka <Tha Kyar Minn>, the chief angel, received king Nay Mi and offered him a seat on the throne.
 
Sakka <Thar Kyar Minn> told king Nay Mi, "Your majesty, stay in Thar Wadeintar Nat Pyi and enjoy the luxurious heavenly wellbeing here."
 
King Nay Mi declined.
He said, "Your highness, the luxurious wellbeing given by somebody resembles a vehicle on loan. It is like using things that are on loan. I do not want it. Only when it is earned with their own good deeds will it become their own property. I only desire my own property. I have to go back to earth and do good deeds myself to earn my own property."
 
Then, king Nay Mi summoned religious teachings to all Nats angels. The teachings included rules for observing physically, orally and morally in order to get benefit and good deeds which were beneficial physically and morally.
 
King Nay Mi came back to the earth after spending 7 days in Thar Wadeintar Nat Pyi. Martali gave a lift again with Waizayandra carriage.
 
When king Nay Mi arrived back, the people of Maithilar assembled happily to greet the king. "What does Nat Pyi looklike, your majesty?" the people asked.
 
King Nay Mi praised about Sakka <Thar Kyar Minn> and other Nats and their luxurious wellbeing. Then the king summoned, "You all have to do good deeds such as alms offerings and etc. You all will be destined to Nat Pyi."
 
A few years later, some hairs turned grey on the king's head. Then, the king gave the throne to his son, Kathara Zanaka, and went into monkhood and wandered at non worldly life.
 
From the beginning of the era of Kathara Zanaka, the legacy of giving up throne and wandering at non worldly life when the hair turned grey was not observed anymore. Then the legacy was eradicated for the future generations.
 
Epilogue:         King Nay Mi was claimed the avatar of Gautama Buddha in one of his previous 547 lives.
 
Note: Sanskrit names are localized for easy understanding.
 
I hereby acknowledge the writer Min Yu Wai for his great work. Thank you.
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