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Translation issue: Literary translation

Translation issue: Literary translation.
Translation generally means to convert the meaning of one language into the other. Most people normally think that it is an easy process, but in reality it is not. We have to look at the style, syntax, register and the precise idea of the original language and of course the linguistics and cultural impacts on source text. Styles of translation vary depending on the needs of the translated texts which can be categorized as literary translation, free translation, back translation and so on. It is impossible to translate one language into the other literally in all occasions, due to for example the other language has no equivalent meaning which matches the original source text. Sometimes, the wording of the source text derives from social and cultural background which does not exist in the other language social and cultural background. In this case direct conversion of one language into the other is controversial. For example, in a sector of workers union collective bargaining is often done between the union and the employers. The word or the jargon     " Horse trading" is often used in a negotiation. Horse trading does not mean actual trading of horses or purchasing or selling of horses, but it means in a negotiation contenders aim to get equal concession for both sides in a hard bargaining. Therefore, literary translation does not apply in this case.
I have come across the same dilemma during the period of my career. End of term school report in which primary level year two mathematics teacher wrote a comment " She had attempted carrying and she will explore this again next year".  How do we translate carrying? Forget about literary meaning it is a term or a jargon used in mathematics.
Feedbacks are welcome in this regard.